For a long time even i had same view, which ofcourse I now believe it has slight errors in it.
The reservation policy intends to transfer the resources of the society in favour of the historically alienated people.
Somehow, the statistical information that the proponents of the Reservation policy hold is that-- about 80% of the resources of the society are in possession of the lesser than 20% of the population. A glancing look of this Advantaged 20%club reveals that they are basically the historically Socially uplifted class , typically described by their "Caste" as a Common factor.
Thus,in the second phrase - "equal protection from the laws ", there in an in-built idea , which the Constitutional experts call as the "Doctrine of Reasonable Classification" in our Constitution. To be able to provide "equal protection from the laws", the government has a duty to classify the people along a certain line.
The makers of the Constitution had picked this Article from the American Constitution. The Doctrine of Reasonable Classification was originally propounded by the American political thinkers, who had discovered that a direct application of the "equality before law" will bring the judicial evil of perpetuating the inequality already ingrained within the society. Hence, the laws will have to do some reverse biasing in order to achieve the true equality in the society.
In South Africa, their Government believes that 'historical alienation' is the explanation for why with about 95% of their population being that of the Black African people, why is it that their national sports teams of Cricket, Rugby Football have lesser than 10% representation of these people.
Ofcourse, the advantaged have counter argued the matter, attributing away the disbalances thus observed to the Dawrin's theory of Evolution, which is to say that the superior Traits have won their struggle of survival over the inferior traits.
But the social and the political thinkers have dismissed this argument, after looking at the history of inequalities that the human society has always carried with it throughout its period of existence on earth. Social reforms will be postponed away to the hopes of a Good Evolution, if this inequality were really so.
Imagine, if the underlying explanation of the Developed Nations versus the Developing nations were also attributed away to the unequal Evolution. Question yourself if you are ready to accept this argument and resign the causes to a bad evolution. Do we not argue about how nation has suffered centuries of suppression at the hands of foreign invaders ? why do we see that as the argument for why India is a developing nation ?