Metaphysics of Generalisation -- How the Politics breeds and involves up the people
But a philosopher or either a crook, both, might raise an argument on the birds-flying-away event isolating it with the past experience, and ask, "how can you say that the birds flew away because there is a lion. Maybe the birds flew because the flock leader decided to return home." The uncertainity in the co-relation of birds flying off, to the presence of a lion creates a natural climate for the occurring of politics in the issue, a vote-division situation generated by the immeasurability of abstract things such as beauty of a piece of art. The art-form over here being- the accuracy of prudence knowledge on the presence of a lion,-- there may be, there may be not. Some might even suggest to the man to wait back before jumping to any generalized conclusion before fully analysing an observation. But the need for prompt action in the positive-side presence of a lion enjoins upon the man a make a decision, a quick decision because the execution of his safety action, which more likely is about fleeing away, has to be initiated as per that decision.
But once a generalization instinct becomes a habit for critical analysis of all observations and thereof the decision-making, it is in itself capable of playing a politics by raising a false alarm. Perhaps all that is needed is to raise a safety-alarm on a issue by remotely co-relating the issue with some lapse of the past date. There will have a call for decision-making, which in course will involve a vote-division to manage the uncertainties of future prediction involved in the issue--whether the lapse co-related with the issue will happen again or whether it will not.
On a side note, one can clearly noticed that the angle of uncertainty, the Uncertainty Factor , is a must factor for occurring of Politics-- Politics over here means academic field of collective decision-making on issues which are subject to heavy opinion-making. Indeed, the subjects of Arts, such as the beauty of a painting, or estimation of a future event based on the current rate, or prudential knowledge are the most common Art-forms for growth of Politics. Fear factor is another common art-form to force people into decision-making; this kind of Politics is nowadays termed a the Politics of Fear.
Often times, in an attempt to check the instinct of Generalisation, people tend to feel repulsive towards every act of generalisation they see. This however forces on them to switch back to the higher skill of decision-making which only the Man species have developed exclusively-- the skill of Informed decision making, in contrast to the instinctive decision-making which the evolutionary inferior species make use of.
In this scenario, people like to raise questions about the Bases of Information for Generalizing an Observation - the logic of how a generalising should be held valid. The logic could be the frequency of recurrence of the content-observation--a statistical (meta-)'observation' in itself.
The alarm raising point then becomes the next angle of vote-division, a farm field of Politics. The frequency of observation may, or may not, be suited for raising the alarm. For example, an occurance of mere 4 cases of Swine Flu in a locality, say, Pune, is enough mark for raising the Alarm for spread of Swing Flu in the region of Pune. But occurance of four deaths by suicide cannot be an alarm point for raising Alarm for Psychopathic Watch on the Citizens. However, suicide causality of , say, 40 people in 3 months in Haryana, is a justifiable ground for raising Psychopathic watch alarm on the people of Haryana.
The significant characterstics of an act of generalisation is that it soaks up a larger number of people in a single act of Generalisation. For example, all the people living in Pune will be put on watch to prevent Swine Flu, and all the people of Harayana will be put on the watch for psychopathic symptoms. A habitual practicing politician cannot ask for a better gift from God than an event of Generalistion where larger mass may be involved up in the vote-division on an issue. Thus, if a community is subjected to a Generalisation , it is most convenient breeding ground for involving up that community to vote in favour or against that issue. The other counterpoint community, if any, will also get involved up automatically in the vote-division.
The purpose of generalization however does not stop at the idea of decision-making in the instinctive mode of brain. In the holy aspect, even the Informed Decision Making makes use of Generalization for some purposes. Generalisation, by its nature of being the most natural way of critical analysis, is the method for testing a theory given by any person. The wider-applicability of theory is one of the most natural validity-test. The questioning by the masses about the frequency of observation of an event resulting into formation of a theory are an essential method of testing it. Therefore, a newly made observation is put for Generalisation through the explanation routes given in a theory. A generalization, thus, is also a scientific process for natural test and validity.
This need for generalisation process makes the act of generalisation disguised, raising another episode of vote-division of whether the Generalisation is for creating a political vote muster-point , or , for the purpose of testing a theory. Like, as seen in the case of Birds flying off and the presence of a lion, the genuine safety needs related with an event become the Theory for putting the observation in the Generalised form.
This is how a theorist, a sort of philosopher, becomes eclipsed by a habitual politician, a crook.
What is Critical Thinking and how it involves Generalisation of Observations?
Read more at : http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/critical/1a.html